As it has been a large part of my artistic influence throughout most of my life, I had also better review the history Manga/Anime styles.
Will be writing up soon, but for now I’ll just list a number of places I’ll be reading from.
Okay! History time…
Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) A Japanese Artist ukiyo painter and printmaker of the Edo Period. He was primarily famous for his creation of the Woodblock Print series “Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji”. In 1811 at the age of 51 he changed his name to Taito and created the Hokusai Manga. Coining the term, Manga. This still doesn’t refer to the story telling sequential art of Manga in the 20th Century. Hokusai Manga sketches within the series were not connected to each other, though it was still comprised of thousands of images.
In the late 18th Century, Manga-like books (printed using woodblocks) began being produced by middle class merchants. These were called Kibyoshi (Yellow covers) and were storybooks for adults in which narration and dialogue were placed in and around ink-brush illustrations, often in creative ways that consciously blurred the distinction between text and picture. (Multi-volume Kibyoshi were known as gokan.) Often they featured a variety of subjects still seen in modern day manga, such as; humor, drama, fantasy and pornography. These books fell-out of history by the mid-19th Century due to Government censorship and other reasons.
The ancestor of modern-day manga as we know is NOT Kibyoshi, it is the European/American style political cartoon of the latter 19th Century and the multi-panel comic strips that flowered in American newspapers in the last years of the 19th Century and the first years of the 20th Century.
Important figure: Osamu Tezuka (1928 – 1989) The God of Manga, perished of stomach cancer. His last words were; “I’m begging you, let me work.” Creator of Mighty Atom, now known as Astro Boy. He changed how most manga was drawn, rather than going from the two-dimensional perspective he added a touch of cinematography to the panels, utilizing close-ups, long shots, perspective shots etc. He also didn’t just explore comedy, he also included themes of tears, sorrow, anger and hatred within his works.
He started out humbly, drawing 4 panel comics for newspapers following the war. He made a comic book in 1947 entitled New Treasure Island published on Akahon (Red book), a cheap form of comic book named for the gaudy red ink used on covers. It sold 400,000 copies and changed the comic book scene overnight.
Tezuka changed location to be closer to the publishing industry and developed a following of manga artists that joined him in his pursuit. Some of them very notable in the postwar manga industry; Shotaro Ishimori/Ishinomori(Cyborg 009), Fujiko Fujio (a duo of Hiroshi Fujimoto and Motoo Abiko (Doraemon)), Fujio Akatsuka (the gag-manga king), Hideko Mizuno (Fire!)
Timeline taken from novaonline.
1914 – Cartoonists were among the first Japanese artists to experiment with animated motion pictures.
1918 – Momotaro by Kitayama Seitaro became Japan’s first world wide success. However, the manga industry was still growing slowly and had a long way to go.
1932 – Before the WWII, Seitaro released the anime, Chikara To Onna No Yononoka. (The world of power and women.)
1941- The Japanese government used cartoonist to make comic strips with propaganda to use against their enemies.
1947 – After World War II, Osamu Tezuka became a cartoonist and released his first work Shintakarajima (known in English as New Treasure Island).
1951 – Osamu Tezuka created the milestone manga, Tetsuwan Atom or Astro Boy, as it was known in the US. As a result, years later he became a pioneer in anime, and was the man responsible for the success of anime and manga worldwide.
1956 – The production company, Toei Animation, was founded by Hiroshi Okawa and released its first feature, The Tale of the White Serpent.
1958 – Tezuka furthers his talents entering the anime world.
1961 – Tezuka founded the Osamu Tezuka Production Animation Department, which eventually became Mushi Productions.
1962 – Manga Calendar was the very first anime to be aired on television.
1963 – Tezuka’s Astro Boy premiered on NBC stations. Important note here, this is what caused the massive international boom of anime and manga. Though the excutives didn’t much care for a cartoon character with human-like sentience, thoughts and feelings. However, it did make for very popular TV.
1970’s- Various “mecha” anime (anime with giant robots) took over. Among them were G-Force, Battle of the Planets, Great Mazinger, and Star Blazers.
1979 – Mobile Suit Gundam, the originial version of the current anime Gundam Wing premiered and was a huge success which turned into a nation wide obsession. As a result, the series was released into three theatrical films.
1986 – The artist, Akira Toriyama, released the series Dragon Ball, which became one of Japan’s most popular anime shows. Later, the series went on forming Dragon Ball Z and Dragon Ball GT.
1988 – The world receives a blast with the graphically violent and gruesome anime, Akira, which was an international hit.
1995 – The girls anime, Sailor Moon, was aired in the US.
1997- Cartoon Network launched Toonami, a segment that showed non-American cartoons which later on proved themselves to be more than worthy of watching in the US.
1999 – Pokemon was released in the US and it hit the country by storm! Sometime during the same year, Miyazaki released the movie, Princess Mononoke with help from Disney.
2000 – Gundam Wing, the anime descended from Mobile Suit Gundam, was released. Along with it came Tenchi Muyo, Card Captors, Blue Submarine 6, and the short lived Vision of Escaflowne.
2001 – Outlaw Star, the most current anime to be aired in the US, is showing on Cartoon Netwrok’s Toonami.